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Select the correct answer from the four choices given!

  1. ____ raw materials into useful products is called manufacturing.
    A. Transform
    B. Being transform
    C. Transforming
    D. When transforming
  2. The man decided to resign from his job ____ his proposal of increasing the salary was rejected.
    A. hence
    B. as                                      
    C. thus
    D. because of
  3. ___, Frances Perkins held the post of labor secretary for twelve years.
    A. The first woman appointed by a United States President to a cabinet position was
    B. The first woman appointed by a United States President to a cabinet position
    C. That President to a cabinet position was the first woman
    D. That the first woman was appointed by a United States President to a cabinet position
  4. Among the first plants to grow on the land regions of the Earth ____, which in prehistoric times grew to immense size.
    A. were horsetail rushes
    B. horsetail rushes
    C. horsetail rushes were
    D. where horsetail rushes
  5. Alaska found the first years of its statehood costly because it had to take over the expense of services ____ previously by the federal government.
    A. provide                           
    B. providing
    C. which provided                        
    D. provided
  6. The man had the bouncers ____ some people out of the club for being drunk and disorderly.
    A. throw
    B. to throw
    C. threw
    D. thrown
  7. _____ a reputation as a daring, intrepid journalist, Nellie Bly became the first female reporter assigned to the Eastern front during the First World War.
    A. Having gained
    B. It was gaining
    C. To be gained
    D. Gained
  8. What brought about the widespread extinction of the dinosaurs ____ unknown; it must, however, have involved major changes in the environment.
    A. have
    B. has
    C. are
    D. is
  9. The dominant philosophy of the Age of Enlightenment attempted _____ everything in the universe in terms of forces that could be detected by the human senses.
    A. to be explained
    B. to have been explained
    C. to explain
    D. explaining
  10. ____ white light is light composed of various wavelengths may be demonstrating by dispersing a beam of such light through a prism.
    A. As
    B. That
    C. Thus
    D. However

    Choose the one word or phrase which would not be appropriate in standard written English!
  11. The introduction (A) of the power loom enabled weavers to produce (B) yard goods faster (C), more efficiently, and less expensive (D).
    A. introduction
    B. produce
    C. faster
    D. less expensive
  12. The recent submitting (A) proposal is considered (B) inefficient, thus (C), the committee may want (D) a cost review.
    A. submitting
    B. is considered
    C. thus
    D. may want
  13. Acoustics, the study (A) of sounds, is (B) one of the oldest (C) of the physically (D) sciences.
    A. study
    B. is
    C. oldest
    D. physically
  14. Mitosis is the normal process by which (A) a cell divides, each (B) new cell ending (C) up with the same number of chromosomes with (D) the parent cell.
    A. by which
    B. each
    C. ending
    D. with
  15. When used (A) as food additives (B), antioxidants prevent fats and oils from become (C) rancid when exposed to air, and (D) extend their shelf life.
    A. used
    B. additives
    C. become
    D. and